The SNP politician, MP for Edinburgh South West, said on Twitter that she will be away from her duties, but her constituency office will continue operating.
Controversy has surrounded Ms Cherry recently over her stance on transphobia and women's rights.
She tweeted on Thursday: "A wee personal announcement. I'm taking some time out for health reasons.
"My constituency office will continue to deal with all enquiries. I hope my privacy will be respected. Thank you."
Ms Cherry has previously told of an 18-month campaign of abuse she was subjected to due to her support for women's sex-based rights.
She was removed from her post as the SNP's justice and home affairs spokeswoman at Westminster, having come in for criticism over her stance on transgender issues.
The SNP has previously said she was removed from the front bench because of "unacceptable behaviour" - not because of her views.