The Labour leader was shown saying something under his breath after Mrs May likened his attempt to force a confidence vote in her earlier this week to a Christmas pantomine.
It brought condemnation from Tory MPs, with party chairman Brandon Lewis urging him to either “apologise or clarify” what he had mouthed.
The Commons descended into uproar as MPs attempted to get Speaker John Bercow to take action against Mr Corbyn, who had left the chamber, and bring him back to explain his remarks.
Deputy Tory chairman James Cleverly said: “This kind of misogynistic language must not be tolerated.”
And Health Secretary Matt Hancock added: “The mask slips. Jeremy Corbyn’s abuse of the Prime Minister shows what a reactionary misogynist he is.”
Mr Corbyn’s spokesman said he had confirmed the word spoken with the Labour leader personally.