Ms Sturgeon said that society should stop expecting women to fix problems of sexism and harassment.
She made the statement in response to a question by Scottish Labour MSP Daniel Johnson calling for an investigation and inquiry into the culture and practice of Police Scotland regarding sexism and misogyny in the wake of a tribunal of firearms officer Rhona Malone.
Ms Malone this week won her claim of victimisation against the police after she lifted the lid on an “absolute boys’ club” described as “horrific”.
The tribunal comes just days after Metropolitan police officer Wayne Couzens was sentenced to full life imprisonment for the murder of Sarah Everard in London.
Ms Sturgeon said that it should not be assumed that a single case such as Ms Malone’s is an isolated incident – but called for men across society to “challenge” other men exhibiting signs of misogynistic behaviour.
She said: "We [should] not assume that any organisation in our society, however well respected that organisation is by all of us, is somehow immune by the misogynistic culture than pervades our whole society.
“It has taken too long to get to this point, but I hope we are finally at a watershed moment, at a turning point, where we stop expecting women to fix these problems and we put the full glare where it belongs – on men who behave in a deeply unacceptable and misogynistic way.”
She added: “I say to men in this chamber and to all men across the country: challenge it if it’s on the part of other men you know and challenge your own behaviour and then let’s collectively as a society turn the page and turn the corner so that women can live free of fear of harassment, abuse, intimidation, violence and, in the worst cases, death.”
PC Rhona Malone, 45, took legal action against Police Scotland, claiming she was discriminated against and victimised by senior officers. Her inspector Keith Warhurst posted topless pictures of women on a WhatsApp group of officers.