Ian Blackford said MPs must take control of the Brexit process and ensure a no-deal outcome is avoided.
Parliamentarians are due to vote on the Brexit deal proposed by Theresa May on Tuesday, with the government expected to fall to a heavy defeat.
Speaking on the BBC's Sunday Politics programme, Mr Blackford said opposition parties would “give a determination to the government that it should revoke Article 50” - the legal mechanism for Brexit which sets a deadline of March 29 for the date of departure
"The SNP will work with others to make sure that we can find a way through this".
The Highlands MP added: "I would like the House of Commons now to take control because the Prime Minister has failed to give leadership.
"The Prime Minister's got to stop threatening Parliament and indeed, threatening the whole of the United Kingdom, that it's a choice between her deal and no deal - that's not the case.
"There are other options that are open to us and Parliament has to make sure that it takes the necessary action to protect the interests of all of us".
Mr Blackford said a so-called People’s Vote on the terms of Brexit, with an option to stay in the EU, was another “sensible” option to break the deadlock.
He also appeared to out at Labour over the continued confusion about what stance it would take on Brexit if it secured a snap general election.
Mr Blackford said: "I think everyone now knows that there is no such thing as a 'good Brexit', there's no such thing as a 'jobs-first Brexit', as some have claimed.
"Under any scenario, people are going to be poorer, people are going to lose their jobs.
"As politicians, we've got a responsibility to have a conversation with everybody that we now know that Brexit is going to be painful.”
Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has said his party wants to have a general election, a possibility which Mr Blackford said the SNP would be prepared for.
He said: "I would love a general election because that would allow us to give a very clear statement to the Tory government as to where we're standing.
"If there is a general election, I would welcome that and I welcome the opportunity to campaign in the streets of Scotland if that is the case".