MSPs on the Constitution, Europe, External Affairs and Culture Committee believe there needs to be a much wider debate about where power lies in the wake of the UK's departure from the European Union.
A new inquiry will consider how devolution is working post-Brexit - and what changes could be made as the UK adapts to its new arrangements.
The committee is also looking for views on how much scope there is for the four nations in the UK to adopt different approaches in areas such as environmental standards, food standards and animal welfare.
Speaking as the inquiry was launched, committee convener Clare Adamson said: "The devolution landscape has undoubtedly changed as a result of Brexit.
"There are now significant differences between the views of the UK Government and the views of the Scottish and Welsh governments about alignment with EU law and these differences raise fundamental questions about the way devolution works outside of the EU.
"But these questions are far from theoretical. They will have significant impacts on business, communities and lives of people throughout Scotland.
"This is why we have today launched an inquiry to engage with a wide range of people to try and find answers to these most difficult of questions."