On this day: Mary Whitehouse’s Clean Up TV campaign
National day of Yugoslavia.
1530: Cardinal Wolsey arrested as a traitor and recalled to London. On the way he died at Leicester, and was buried there.
1580: Sir Francis Drake returned to England from circumnavigating the globe.
1681: The Royal College of Physicians, Edinburgh, was granted its charter by Charles II.
1864: Massacre at Sand Creek, Colorado, of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians by troops under command of Colonel John M Chivington.
1907: Florence Nightingale, the “Lady of the Lamp”, was presented, at the age of 87, with the Order of Merit by King Edward VII for her services to the sick during the Crimean war.
1915: Women were first employed on the permanent staff at Scotland Yard.
1922: Archaeologists announced that they had found fabulous treasures in tomb of Tutankhamen in Egypt.
1929: American admiral and aviator Richard Byrd made first flight over the South Pole.
1945: Monarchy was abolished in Yugoslavia, which was proclaimed a communist republic.
1947: United Nations announced plan for partition of Palestine, with Jerusalem under United Nations control.
1965: Mary Whitehouse began her Clean Up TV campaign by setting up the National Viewers’ and Listeners’ Association to tackle “BBC bad taste and irresponsibility”.
1974: Parliament passed a bill making the IRA an illegal organisation.
1975: Graham Hill, 46, motor racing champion, died with five others while piloting a plane that crashed in fog over north London.
1988: South African presidential council rejected proposed bill that would have tightened enforcement of residential segregation laws.
1989: Romanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci fled to Hungary.
1990: John Major was criticised for his all-male Cabinet, the first since 1964.
1995: The Conservative government announced an expanded role for the Scottish Grand Committee by switching some parliamentary proceedings from Westminster, including examination of the prime minister and Cabinet ministers.
2007: Wendy Alexander faced calls for her resignation as leader of the Scottish Labour Party after transport spokesman, Charlie Gordon, a former leader of Glasgow City Council, admitted that cash given to her leadership campaign from Jersey-based businessman Paul Green broke the law on overseas donations.
Ryan Giggs, footballer, 40; Simon Amstell, comedy actor and writer, 34; Don Cheadle, actor, 49; Jacques Chirac, president of France 1995-2007, 81; Joel Coen, film actor, producer and director, 59; Ross Drummond, Scottish golfer, 57; Diane Ladd, actress, 81; Lisa Maxwell, actress, 50; Gena Lee Nolin, actress, 42; David Rintoul, Aberdeen-born actor, 65.
Births: 1832 Louisa May Alcott, author; 1843 Gertrude Jekyll, gardener and landscape architect; 1895 Busby Berkeley, creator of song and dance film extravaganzas; 1898 CS Lewis, writer and academic; 1929 Derek Jameson, journalist.
Deaths: 1872 Mary Somerville, Jedburgh-born mathematician and author after whom the Oxford college was named; 1921 Lord Mount Stephen, Briton who founded Canadian Pacific Railway; 1924 Giacomo Puccini, composer; 1981 Natalie Wood, film star; 1987 Irene Handl, actress.