1797: At 2pm, during the battle of Santa Cruz, Admiral Nelson was wounded in the right arm by grapeshot. He had it amputated that afternoon.
1554: Mary I (Bloody Mary) married Philip II of Spain, her second marriage. The first marriage had been when she was three, to the son of the King of France, who was nine months old.
1865: James Barry died aged 70. On his death a post-mortem revealed that “the most skilful of physicians and the most wayward of men” was in fact a woman – and was, therefore, probably the first woman to qualify as a doctor in Britain. Jilted by a lover, Barry had joined the British Army and stayed for 52 years.
1878: China’s first diplomatic mission to United States arrived in Washington.
1907: Japan obtained protectorate over Korea.
1907: Sir Robert Baden-Powell’s experimental camp, to test the feasibility of Scouting, began when 20 boys of mixed backgrounds sailed over Poole Harbour to Brownsea Island for a holiday learning survival skills. Four days later, on 29 July, the Boy Scouts organisation was created.
1909: Louis Bleriot flew his three-cylinder monoplane across the English Channel from Calais to Dover in 36.5 minutes.
1943: Benito Mussolini resigned as dictator of Italy and the Fascist regime was abolished.
1956: Italian liner Andrea Doria and Swedish ship Stockholm collided off coast of New England, and 50 lives were lost.
1959: The hovercraft, the SRN-1, made its first English Channel crossing – from Dover to Calais – in a little more than two hours.
1963: United States, Soviet Union and Britain concluded treaty prohibiting nuclear testing in atmosphere, space or under water.
1971: Doctor Christiaan Barnard transplanted two lungs and heart into man in Cape Town, South Africa, and the operation was described as successful.
1987: The London Daily News closed down five months after it was started.
1990: Crew of two and four oil workers were killed when helicopter hit crane on Brent Spar North Sea oil platform and plunged into the sea.
1991: European Court outlawed 1988 Merchant Shipping Act, designed to stop Spanish trawlers taking British fish stocks. Move prompted claims of loss of sovereignty to EC.
1994: Israel and Jordan ended their 46-year state of war when they signed a declaration in Washington.
1995: Four people were killed and 60 injured by a terrorist bomb on the Paris Metro.
1996: Scottish Television paid £120 million for Caledonian Publishing, owners of the Herald and Glasgow Evening Times.
2000: An Air France Concorde exploded in flames as it took off from Charles de Gaulle airport, near Paris, killing all 109 people on board, and four people in a hotel. It was the first crash involving a Concorde, which was withdrawn from service four years later.
2007: GMTV admitted that ITV’s breakfast viewers who made phone calls costing £35 million over four years had had no chance of winning one of its phone-in competitions.
2007: Pratibha Patil was sworn in as India’s first woman president.
2012: At the start of the Olympics, the North Korean women’s football team walked off the pitch at Hampden Park after their images were shown on a screen beside a South Korean flag. The game eventually started an hour late.
Iman, model, 60; Louise Brown, first test-tube baby, 37; James Butler MBE, sculptor, 84; Ali Carter, snooker player, 36; Nicole Farhi, Lady Hare CBE, fashion designer, 69; Charles Handy, author and broadcaster, 83; Paul Hegarty, footballer, 61; Matt LeBlanc, actor, 48; Sheena McDonald, broadcaster and journalist, 61; Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn, British archaeologist, 78; Annie Ross, Scottish singer and actress, 85; Lord Nicholas Windsor, son of the Duke and Duchess of Kent, 45; Kevin Phillips, football coach and former player, 42; Gareth Thomas, 100-times capped Welsh ruby player, 41; Adnan Khashoggi, Saudi Arabian businessman, 80.
Births: 1650 William Burkitt, clergyman and theologian; 1799 David Douglas, Scottish botanist; 1848 Arthur J Balfour, Conservative prime minister 1902-05; 1894 Walter Brennan, three-time Oscar-winning actor; 1920 Rosalind Franklin, biophysicist who made major contribution in discovery of DNA; 1923 Estelle Getty, actress.
Deaths: 1834 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, poet; 1843 Charles Macintosh, Scottish chemist who developed and patented waterproof fabric; 1934 Francois Coty, perfume manufacturer; 1966 Billy Smart, circus proprietor; 1986 Vincente Minnelli, film director; 2003 John Schlesinger, film director.