National day of Venezuela
1295: Scotland and France formed an alliance - the start of the “Auld Alliance” – against England.
1530: John Armstrong of Gilnockie, a Border reiver, and 50 of his men, were hanged for blackmail by James V at Carlanrig.
1596: The English fleet, under the command of the Earl of Essex, plundered Cadiz during the Anglo-Spanish War.
1687: Isaac Newton’s PRINCIPIA, outlining the laws of motion and universal gravitation, was published by the Royal Society in England.
1695: Scottish Parliament established General Post Office.
1832: Charles Darwin departed from Rio de Janeiro aboard HMS Beagle.
1841: Thomas Cook opened his first travel agency.
1847: The Edinburgh to London horse-drawn mail coach made its last run.
1865: The Locomotives and Highway Act stipulated that the speed limit for road vehicles in Britain should be 4mph in the country, 2mph in towns.
1922: Women voted for the first time in the general election in Netherlands.
1937: Spam luncheon meat was introduced to the market by the Hormel Food Corporation.
1940: A convoy of ships carrying £1,800 million in gold bullion left the River Clyde bound for Canada as part of Operation Fish, the biggest movement of wealth in history.
1943: German offensive on Soviet front began with Battle of Kursk, involving 6,000 tanks – the biggest tank battle of the Second World War.
1944: Harry Crosby took the first rocket airplane, the MX-324, for its maiden flight.
1945: The Labour Party, led by Clement Attlee, won a landslide victory in the general election.
1946: Sam Snead scored 290 to win golf’s Open Championship at St Andrews.
1946: Bikini swimwear was first modelled, at Paris fashion show.
1948: Clement Attlee’s Labour government introduced the National Health Service.
1954: The BBC broadcast its first television news bulletin.
1955: Western European Union’s first assembly opened in Strasbourg.
1965: Opera star Maria Callas gave her last stage performance at Covent Garden, aged 41.
1975: Arthur Ashe became the first black tennis player to win Wimbledon men’s singles title.
1973: The Isle of Man issued its first postage stamps.
1973: Cricket umpire Dickie Bird made his Test debut in England’s match against West Indies at Headingley.
1985: Zimbabwe held its first general election which returned Robert Mugabe’s government with an increased majority.
1991: Bank of England closed down Bank of Credit and Commerce International, as evidence emerged of massive fraud.
1991: Nelson Mandela named president of African National Congress.
2009: The largest hoard of Anglo-Saxon gold ever discovered was found near the village of Hammerwich, near Lichfield, in Staffordshire.
2012: South Korea announced plans to begin “scientific” whaling of Minke whales.