1768: Captain Cook set off to explore the Antipodes.
1840: The first drama school in Britain, Miss Kelly’s Theatre, was opened in Dean Street, London.
1869: After Emperor Franz Josef, opening the Opera House, Vienna, said he was not keen on the Gothic style, one architect committed suicide and the other had a heart attack.
1871: The House of Commons passed the Bank Holiday Act, creating public holidays on Easter Monday, Whit Monday and Christmas Day.
1878: In a London fog, “gentleman burglar” Adam Worth climbed through a window of the London art dealers Agnew & Agnew and stole a Gainsborough painting, The Duchess. It sat in an American warehouse until 1901, when Worth, dying, sold it back to the dealers for a vast sum.
1878: Gilbert & Sullivan’s HMS Pinafore was premiered at Opera Comique, London. The Daily Telegraph critic wrote that it was “a frothy production destined soon to subside to nothingness”.
1904: The first Spirella corset was made.
1914: The House of Commons passed Irish Home Rule Bill.
1935: Jesse Owens, American athlete, set six world records within 45 minutes at Ann Arbor in Michigan.
1951: The spies Burgess and McLean escaped from Britain en route to Moscow.
1953: Chris Chataway set a two-mile run record of eight minutes and 49.6 seconds.
1955: A British expedition became first to climb Himalayan peak Kangchenjunga.
1967: Celtic, managed by Jock Stein, became first British football club to win the European Cup, beating Inter Milan 2-1 in Lisbon.
1979: American Airlines DC-10 lost an engine and nose-dived into ground at Chicago’s O’Hare Airport, killing 272 people aboard.
1982: Destroyer HMS Coventry was sunk by Argentine Exocet missiles in Falklands war. Container ship Atlantic Conveyor went down with loss of nine lives.
1983: River Nile ferry caught fire and sank in Egypt, leaving 194 people dead and 68 missing.
1990: Prime minister Margaret Thatcher pledged to stabilise UK CO2 emissions by 2000.
1991: In two-day airlift, Israel rescued about 18,000 Ethiopian Jews as civil war engulfed Addis Ababa.
1994: Camelot, a consortium including Cadbury Schweppes, security printer De La Rue and communication group Racal, won contract for the National Lottery.
1995: The Scottish Nationalists captured the late Sir Nicholas Fairbairn’s parliamentary seat of Perth and Kinross in an 11.5 per cent swing from the Tories.
1996: A woman swam for four hours to try to get help when a clam dredger sank in the Firth of Clyde. She survived, but her four companions drowned.
2009: Gordon Strachan resigned as manager of Celtic a day after his team lost the Scottish
Premier League title to Rangers. However, in his four years with the club, Strachan won three league titles.
Lauryn Hill, rapper (Fugees), 40; Alastair Campbell, journalist and former Downing Street spin doctor, 58; Julian Clary, comic, 56; Eric Deacon, British actor, 65; Margaret Forster, British author, 77; Anne Heche, actress, 46; Sir Malcolm Innes of Edingight, Lord Lyon King of Arms 1981-2001, and president, Heraldry Society of Scotland, 77; David Jenkins, Scottish athlete, 63; Sir Ian McKellen CBE, actor and director, 76; Mike Myers, Canadian actor, 52; Cillian Murphy, Irish actor, 39; Frank Oz, US film director, 71; Dave Lee Travis, UK DJ, 70; Paul Weller, UK musician, 57; Johnny Wilkinson OBE, rugby player, 36; Mark McGhee, Glasgow-born football manager, 58
Births: 1713 John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, Edinburgh-born Prime Minister 1762-63; 1803 Ralph Waldo Emerson, US poet; 1826 Tom Sayers, champion bare-knuckle fighter; 1879 William Maxwell Aitken, first Baron Beaverbrook, newspaper owner; 1881 Béla Bartók, composer; 1889 Igor Sikorsky, pioneer of the helicopter; 1898 Gene Tunney, world heavyweight boxing champion; 1913 Richard Dimbleby, broadcaster; 1916 Elizabeth, Duchess of Hamilton, deputy lieutenant for East Lothian, and charity founder; 1925 Derek Cooper, food journalist; 1926 Miles Davis, US jazz trumpeter and composer; 1929 Arthur Montford, Scottish sports commentator
Deaths: 1675 Gaspard Poussin, painter; 1934 Gustav Holst, composer of The Planets; 1939 Sir Frank Dyson, astronomer and director of Greenwich Observatory; 1948 Jacques Feyder, film director; 1954 Robert Capa, war photographer (killed in Vietnam); 1983 Sydney Box, film producer; 2005 Ismail Merchant, film producer; 2008 Sydney Pollack, film director; 2014 Matthew Saad Muhammad, world light-heavyweight boxing champion