Emergency services responded to reports of a person in the water at Camperdown Docks shortly after 1pm on Tuesday.
The man, who has not yet been identified, was taken to hospital but could not be saved.
Police Scotland, the Scottish Fire and Rescue Service and the Coastguard were involved in the operation.
A Police Scotland spokesman said: “The man was recovered from the River Tay and taken to Ninewells Hospital however it was not possible to revive him and he has sadly died.
“Inquiries are ongoing to identify him and notify his next of kin at this time, and also to establish the circumstances as to how he came to be in the river.”
Anyone with information is asked to call 101, quoting reference number 1339 of April 3.