The teenager was going to collect her bicycle after visiting an Asda store in Barrhead, East Renfrewshire, on Sunday when she was allegedly attacked.
Police Scotland launched a large-scale investigation and arrested a 19-year-old man on Tuesday.
Samuel Ciornei appeared in private at Paisley Sheriff Court on Wednesday and was charged with rape under section one and three of the Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009.
He also faced a separate charge of theft, the Crown Office said.
Ciornei, whose general address was given as Glasgow, made no plea or declaration and was remanded in custody ahead of a further court appearance next week.