President Juan Manuel Santos and Rodrigo Londono, top commander of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (Farc), formally signed the agreement before a crowd of 2,500 foreign dignitaries and special guests, including United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and US secretary of state John Kerry.
Many in the audience had tears in their eyes as Mr Santos removed from his lapel a pin shaped like a white dove which he has been wearing for years and handed it over to his former adversary, who fastened it to his own shirt.
It was one of many symbolic gestures during the 90-minute ceremony overlooking the colonial ramparts of Cartagena that filled Colombians with hope and optimism for the work ahead to implement a 297-page accord that took four years to negotiate.
The deal’s first test will be a weekend referendum in which voters are being asked to ratify or reject the deal.
If it passes, as expected, Colombia will move on to the thornier and still uncertain task of reconciliation.
If the accord is accepted by Colombian voters, Farc’s estimated 7,000 fighters would have to turn over their weapons to a team of United Nations-sponsored observers within six months.
The European Union announced it has suspended its sanctions against Farc, which has been on the bloc’s “terrorist list” since 2002. The sanctions have allowed the European Union to freeze the assets of people, groups and entities linked to Farc and to stop Europeans making funds or economic resources available to it. The US has yet to follow suit, although Mr Kerry said he was open to reconsidering the group’s status.
The two sides have drafted an ambitious agenda to hasten the development of Colombia’s long-neglected countryside and rid it of illegal coca crops.
Mr Londono, best known by his alias Timochenko, called Mr Santos “a courageous partner” and proclaimed there was no turning back on Farc’s decision to abandon Colombia’s jungles.
Across the country, Colombians celebrated with a host of activities, from peace concerts to a street party in the capital, where the signing ceremony was broadcast live on a giant screen.