The Green Jobs Workforce Academy will list new jobs related to the net-zero economy on its website, including roles in renewable energy, construction and transport.
It was launched by the First Minister as she visited the Scottish Power training centre in Cumbernauld, North Lanarkshire, on Monday morning.
The company has launched a recruitment drive for 135 green jobs in Scotland over the next four months.
A new green jobs academy was one of Ms Sturgeon's commitments for the reformed Scottish Government's first 100 days.
Ms Sturgeon said: "It is great to see Scottish Power creating 135 new green jobs in Scotland.
"The academy's career advisers stand ready to support individuals interested in these jobs access the right training to help their career progress.
"Looking ahead to Cop26 in Glasgow in November, Scotland can be proud that our climate change ambitions, backed by investment in creating a highly-skilled green workforce, will be showcased on an international stage."
The majority of the 135 jobs will be based in central and southern Scotland, where Scottish Power is responsible for transmission maintenance as SP Energy Networks.
Frank Mitchell, chief executive of SP Energy Networks, said: "With less than 100 days to go to Cop26 in Glasgow, we're bringing truly green jobs to Scotland to support the country with its ambitions to be net-zero by 2045.
"These roles offer a variety of career opportunities in a company that is committed to net-zero and is investing millions of pounds every single day to help bring about a cleaner, greener future."