Rt Rev Susan Brown took up the role at Saturday’s opening ceremony in Edinburgh.
Former Moderator Very Rev Dr Derek Browning welcomed his successor and described her work as “full-blooded, soul-warming, kind-hearted parish ministry”.
He said: “On this year when we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the ordination of women to the Ministry of Word and Sacrament it is particularly special that you as a committed parish minister will be our Moderator..
“It is also a delight that having served in two Highland parishes that you will also represent that important part of our country for the first time in a number of years.”
Rev Susan Brown, the minister of Dornoch Cathedral, will now carry out the year-long role.
The 59-year-old, known for having been the minister who married Madonna and Guy Ritchie in 2000, previously said she is “deeply moved and honoured” to be chosen for the role.
She is the fourth woman to hold the Moderator title.
First Minister Nicola Sturgeon attended the opening, along with Lords Provosts from across the country and distinguished visitors from around the world.
His Grace Richard Walter John Montagu Douglas Scott, The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry, represented the Queen as the Lord High Commissioner to the Assembly.