Her condition is not known.
Police arrived at the scene after receiving a report of the overturned HGV carrying timber between Mennock and Ardoch.
Dumfires and Galloway Fire and Rescue service are also currently at the scene.
The A76 is still closed following the incident and motorists are being urged to avoid the area.
A police spokesperson said: "We were made aware of an overturned lorry on the A76 to the south of Sanquhar around 8.50am on Monday, 10 May.
"The female driver has been taken to Dumfries & Galloway Royal Infirmary for treatment.
"The road is currently closed while recovery of the vehicle is arranged."
A Scottish Fire and Rescue Service spokesperson said: “At 8.51am on Monday, May 10 we were called to assist our emergency service partners at a road traffic collision on the A76, approximately four miles south of Sanquhar.
“Operations Control mobilised three appliances and one heavy rescue vehicle to the scene where one lorry carrying timber had overturned.
“Firefighters assisted emergency service partners by clearing debris and making the area safe.”
Diversion have been set up by Amey SW Trunk Roads as the road remains close.
Northbound, people are being asked to commence north of the C133 Drumlanrig, Carronbridge and turn right to A702, continue north of to the Abington Services Roudabout M74 Junction 12.
At the first roundabout, motorists are being asked to take the second exit to the next roundabout, then take the second exit to B7078, continue to to A70 (Millbank) then turn left to continue through Muirkirk and Cumnock to rejoin the A76 at the A70 junction.
Southbound, motorists should commence at A76 at A70 (Cumnock) turn left to A70 and continue towards M74 Junction 12. They are then being urged to turn right to the B7078 to the roundabouts at Abington Service M74 Junction 13. At the first roundabout, they should take the second exit to the next roundabout, take the second exit to A702 and follow to the A76 at Carronbridge to rejoin the route.