Grace periods are now in place for the four cities, with enforcement due to begin on different dates.
In Glasgow, the LEZ is already in place for buses and will apply to other vehicles from June 1, 2023, with the grace period for residents extended to June 1, 2024.
In Edinburgh and Aberdeen, enforcement will begin on June 1, 2024.
In Dundee, enforcement begins on May 30, 2024.
Penalties for bringing a non-compliant vehicle into the LEZ will typically be set at £60, halved to £30 if paid early.
Petrol cars and vans will need to have engines at the Euro 4 standard, which generally applies to vehicles registered after 2006.
Diesel-powered cars and vans will need to be at the Euro 6 standard, mainly applying to vehicles registered after 2015.
Blue badge holders are exempt from LEZ requirements, which are aimed as cutting air pollution and encouraging greater use of public transport.
Transport Minister Jenny Gilruth said: “The introduction of low emission zones is a truly significant public health moment for Scotland.
“Our air quality is generally good – but for too long air pollution has exceeded legal limits for health in our city centres as a consequence of unrestricted vehicle emissions.
“We have a moral responsibility to act. Air pollution often disproportionally impacts those with the least in our society.
“It causes the most damage to the youngest, the oldest and those with pre-existing medical conditions.”
She continued: “LEZs are the biggest change we’ve ever seen in how vehicles will access our cities – and they need to be, in order to best protect public health and improve air quality.
“With a year to go until the earliest point of enforcement in Glasgow and two years to go until enforcement in Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen, I encourage everyone to visit www.lowemissionzones.scot to find out more about the schemes, including the Scottish Government funding on offer.”