An image of the St Andrews flag

13 surprising Scottish innovations - from toasters to raincoats

Did you have toast for breakfast or cycle to work this morning? If so, you have Scottish inventors to thank.

Most people know that Scottish inventors developed the steam engine, the television and the telephone, but in honour of St Andrew’s Day here are 13 other everyday items we’re betting you didn’t know came from Scotland.

Refrigerators first became widely used in the 1920s. But believe it or not, Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen is credited with inventing the basis for modern refrigeration over 150 years earlier in the mid-1700s.

1. Refrigeration

Refrigerators first became widely used in the 1920s. But believe it or not, Scottish physician and chemist William Cullen is credited with inventing the basis for modern refrigeration over 150 years earlier in the mid-1700s.
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The worlds first purpose-built portrait gallery was (and still is) located in Edinburgh. Designed by local architect Robert Rowand Anderson, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery was opened in 1889. Artist John Byrne pictured.

2. Portrait Galleries

The worlds first purpose-built portrait gallery was (and still is) located in Edinburgh. Designed by local architect Robert Rowand Anderson, the Scottish National Portrait Gallery was opened in 1889. Artist John Byrne pictured.
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Regarded as the father of modern hypnotism, James Braid was a surgeon born in Kinross who was the first to investigate and perform hypnotherapy (both on himself and others) in a scientific capacity in 1841.

3. Hypnotism

Regarded as the father of modern hypnotism, James Braid was a surgeon born in Kinross who was the first to investigate and perform hypnotherapy (both on himself and others) in a scientific capacity in 1841.
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Originally known as Johnstons Fluid Beef, this perfect liquid-meat accompaniment to a pie at any football match was invented by Scotsman John Lawson Johnston in 1870.

4. Bovril

Originally known as Johnstons Fluid Beef, this perfect liquid-meat accompaniment to a pie at any football match was invented by Scotsman John Lawson Johnston in 1870.
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