Data from the World Health Organisation shows Tayside has the highest rate of Covid per population in Europe, at 661 cases per 100,000 people.
Lothian is the second highest at 567 cases, with Greater Glasgow and Clyde in fourth place behind the North East of England.
Fife and Grampian are also in the top ten.
Scottish Conservative Shadow Health Secretary Annie Wells MSP called Scotland’s position in the table “shocking and deeply concerning”.
“The SNP are trying to spin a positive picture that they are on top of this situation when in reality the only thing they are on top of is the Covid hotspot tables,” she said.
She added: “These spiralling case numbers are a stark reminder we cannot be complacent in our fight against the virus.
“Instead of appearing on TV cameras attempting to justify failings, the SNP Government must fix the track and trace system, speed up the vaccine rollout and ensure clinical decisions retain the confidence of the public.”
Asked if she is concerned about Scotland’s position with the highest rate of Covid in Europe, Ms Sturgeon said last week she was “not complacent”.
Higher case numbers may be due to lower levels of population immunity in Scotland, she said as fewer people were infected previously.