Another 33,470 lab-confirmed cases of Covid-19 were recorded in the 24 hours before 9am on Thursday, according to the latest Government figures.
A further 563 people died within 28 days of testing positive for coronavirus as of Thursday.
Dr Yvonne Doyle, medical director at Public Health England, said the highest rates of infections were among younger generations.
But she said: "Worryingly it is rising quickly in those over 80 who are most at risk of poor outcomes.
"The current measures are in place to help protect all of us, and anyone can suffer serious illness from this virus.
"The majority of cases reported today were from tests carried out on the 9th and 10th of November, which includes infections acquired in the days leading up to new measures on the 5th November.
"Limiting contact with others will help to stop the spread of the virus and protect the people we love."
However Professor Stephen Powis, NHS England's medical director, played down the increase at a Downing Street press conference on Thursday evening.
He said: "It is important to look at the number of cases reported over a number of days and not just take one day in isolation.
"It is clear that infection rates have been going up. What is really important is to get those infection rates down."
He said it was "too early to say" whether England's national lockdown was having an effect, but warned people not to expect life to return to normal when restrictions are lifted on December 2.
"We will not be going back completely to normal - there will need to be other measures in place because while this virus is still here, we need to ensure that infection rates stay as low as possible and that we reduce the chance of transmission."
Separately, research by Imperial College London's React study suggested around 100,000 new coronavirus infections were occurring per day in England at the start of the second lockdown last week.