A Ucas report shows 1,057 students per 10,000 of population from the 20% most deprived areas in Scotland secured a university place in 2016 compared with 3,940 students per 10,000 of population from the least deprived 20%.
The figures relate to 18-year-old students going to Scottish universities.
The gap is at its lowest since 2011 when the richest were almost five times more likely than the poorest to go to a Scottish university.
Labour Education spokesman Daniel Johnson accused the First Minister of failing spectacularly at cutting the gap between the rich and poor.
He said: “Nicola Sturgeon said cutting the gap between the richest and the rest would be the driving and the defining mission of her government. It is a mission she is failing at spectacularly.
“These figures come a day after confirmation the number of students going to college under the Nationalists has dropped by more than 150,000.
“Opportunities for young people are being cut off even further by an SNP budget that cuts £327 million from local services like schools and social work.
“That is why Labour will bring forward amendments to the Scottish budgets to stop the cuts and invest instead.”