It marks an increase of over 11 per cent from the 11.13 million passengers who used the airport in 2015.
In December a total of 863,147 passengers passed through the airport with a large ncrease in the number of international passengers compared to the same month last year.
Chief executive Gordon Dewar said the news showed the airport was a “tremendous success story for Scotland”.
He said: “This is a great achievement for the airport, the skilled and dedicated team that work here, our partner airlines and businesses and it is also a tremendous success story for Edinburgh and for the whole of Scotland.
“We have continued to enhance passenger choice by offering more routes and more destinations – and people have responded by choosing to fly in and out of Edinburgh Airport in greater numbers than ever before.
“To have smashed this record - exceeding last year’s growth rate and having helped over 12.36 million passengers through the airport - highlights the draw of Edinburgh as a destination and the growing global appeal that Scotland holds.
“A swift and substantial cut to Air Passenger Duty will help greater numbers of the seven billion people across the globe to visit and sample all that Scotland has to offer and we recognise our responsibility to welcome visitors and our role as conduit for further economic growth for the country.”
He added: “In 2017 we will continue to improve the services we offer.
“Further investment in the terminal will enhance the passenger experience and we are in the process of negotiating new exciting routes and destinations which we hope to be able to announce in the coming weeks and months ahead.”
Economy convener, Councillor Gavin Barrie, welcomed the news. He said: “While Edinburgh is a small city, we continue to punch well above our weight with airport facilities and routes that are second to none.
“It is incredible to think that for every resident living in the city, around 25 passengers landed at our airport last year*. This success is in large part thanks to Edinburgh Airport’s strengthened links with airlines, investment and job creation, and Edinburgh’s well-established reputation as one of the world’s best tourist and business destinations.
“In this the 70th anniversary of Edinburgh as a Festival City, I hope this record-breaking trend continues throughout 2017.”