St Charles County Police Department, in Missouri, said paramedics tried to administer “lifesaving techniques” on the singer and guitarist but he could not be revived.
Police responded to calls to a medical emergency at his home at around 12.40pm (5.40pm GMT) on Saturday.
A spokeswoman said: “Inside the home, first responders observed an unresponsive man and immediately administered lifesaving techniques. Unfortunately, the 90-year-old man could not be revived and was pronounced deceased at 1.26pm.
“The St Charles County Police Department sadly confirms the death of Charles Edward Anderson Berry Sr, better known as legendary musician Chuck Berry.
“The family requests privacy during this time of bereavement.”
The music industry reacted with sadness.
The Jacksons said on Twitter: “Chuck Berry merged blues & swing into the phenomenon of early rock ‘n’ roll. In music, he cast one of the longest shadows. Thank You Chuck.”
Whitesnake frontman David Coverdale said: “So sad to share the news of the exceptional Chuck Berry’s passing...RIP Chuck...”
Epic Records chairman LA Reid said: “Music was changed forever by Chuck Berry’s indescribable impact. What a great life in music.”