The form book was ripped up in another respect as hot favourite and Olympic champion Dalilah Muhammad was beaten to gold by fellow American Kori Carter in a time of 53.07.
Ristananna Tracey of Jamaica came through to take the bronze, edging out Czech double world champion Zuzana Hejnova.
GB captain Doyle knew that reaching her third world final was an achievement in itself but was still frustrated with how she had executed the race.
“I went out hard. I took hurdle seven the wrong way and after that I was all over the place,” she said. “If I had finished eighth and nailed the race I would’ve been happy but I feel I could have gone a lot faster out there.
“I am not saying I could have finished amongst the medals but I feel I could have finished higher than eighth.
“This is where you want your best race to happen. I felt like I was getting some really good consistency heading into the Championships and everything has gone well.
“I need to look back at it to see where I made the mistakes and what went wrong and move forward from there.”
Champion Carter said: “It’s a surreal experience right now. Me and my coach, our whole goal and focus was to get on the podium this year, it’s what we’ve been committed to. To put it together is such a blessing.”
Muhammad added: “I really wanted to win, of course, but I’ve had so many ups and downs this season. To come out with a silver, I’m proud of that. I am very proud of Team USA, we come out and show out.”
Meanwhile, Laura Muir made her return to the track where she came so close to winning a bronze in Monday’s 1,500m final, and endured another tough examination in the first of the 5,000m heats.
Muir struggled home in seventh, outside the top-five automatic spots, but made it through to Sunday’s final as a fastest loser. There was joy for Eilish McColgan in the second heat as she finished fourth but Steph Twell, who won the British trials, was 15th.
Muir couldn’t keep pace with a blistering last lap and clocked 14:59.34, almost ten seconds outside the PB she set indoors in Glasgow. The first heat was the strongest, with Kenya’s Olympic medallist Hellen Obiri and Ethiopia’s 10,000m world champion Almaz Ayana leading the way.
“That was long. I ran as hard as I could and that was really fast. We’d been looking at the times in the heats from previous Championships and that was the fastest ever, that I know of anyway,” said the 24-year-old Scot.
“I took a day to think about the 1500m then after than I put it behind me and focused on this and mentally I was very positive going into this race and I will be hopefully going into the final.
“I have another two or three days until the final so I should be recovered. I felt good out there apart from that last lap.”
In contrast, McColgan was ecstatic after shaving almost five seconds off her PB with a run of 15.00.38.
“I’m so shocked with that time, it was so slow at the start. We are not allowed to see the previous race so we were jumping over trying to see the time anytime the door opened.
“For me usually 15 minutes has my eyeballs out from the start, so to jog and really only pick up the last six – I’m over the moon with that, I’m really, really happy.”
The second heat, which saw Ethiopian big gun Genzebe Dibaba withdraw before the start, resembled a Tour de France stage as Molly Huddle made an early breakaway only to be swallowed up at the end, although the American was rewarded with a fastest losers’ spot.