Scottish Rugby has confirmed that the Scots will face the Pumas on November 6, before hosting the Brave Blossoms on November 13 and the All Blacks a week later on November 20.
Kick-off times for all fixtures are still to be finalised but a three-game ticket package will go on sale ahead of Christmas.
The match with New Zealand - the world's number two-ranked side - is the first meeting between the two nations since the Kiwis' 22-17 Autumn Test win at Murrayfield in November 2017.
The Scots are still seeking an historic first win over the All Blacks, with two draws and 29 defeats from 31 encounters.
Scotland and Argentina have nine wins apiece from their 18 meetings, while Japan's 28-21 win over the Scots in the crunch Pool A match during the Rugby World Cup was their first victory over the Tier 1 nation in eight attempts.
Scotland Women face their Japanese counterparts this coming Sunday before the men's teams meet again in 12 months time.
Scotland head coach Gregor Townsend welcomed the confirmation of the Autumn Test fixtures, adding: "Representing your country is the pinnacle of the sport and in 2020 we will have opportunities to pit ourselves against some of the world's leading teams.
“To host Argentina, Japan and New Zealand at BT Murrayfield following our games against England and France in the Six Nations provides fantastic competitive challenges which we look forward to seeing our players embrace."
Tickets are already sold out for Scotland's eagerly-anticipated Calcutta Cup match with England on February 8 next year, kick-off 4.45pm, while tickets for the second home game against France (kick-off 3pm) go on sale on Thursday November 21 at 10am.