The 56-year-old pedestrian was on Hayfield Road in Kirkcaldy when he was struck by a silver Audi A4 at about 12.50am on Sunday.
Police and ambulance crews went to the scene and the man was taken to the town’s Victoria Hospital, where he is said to be in a critical condition.
Sergeant Ewan Pearce, of Glenrothes road policing unit, said: “I’m appealing for anyone who may have seen what happened either from driving or walking through the area.
“I would also ask drivers to check their dash cam footage if they were on Hayfield Road at that time in case it picked up the incident.”
Anyone with information is asked to contact Police Scotland on 101 quoting incident number 230 of March 3.