The pedestrian was hit by the private refuse truck on Gorgie Park Road at around 6am this morning.
He was rushed to Edinburgh Royal Infirmary and his injuries have been described as “serious”.
Gorgie Park Road is closed while accident investigations take place, but traffic is flowing normally on Gorgie Road.
Officers are urging anyone who witnessed the collision to come forward.
Sergeant Ross Drummond said: “This collision has left a man with serious injuries and we are keen to speak to anyone with information that can help us with our inquiries.
“Anyone with information can contact us by calling 101.”
Stewart Melrose, chief executive at Scot Waste, said: “Our thoughts are with him and his family.
“Our driver has gone home and is in a state about it. He is a very experienced driver and had just started his shift. We have never had anything like this happen before.
“We don’t know enough details yet so we are conducting our own investigation to try to get to the bottom of it.”