Football legend Kenny Dalglish and Professor James Hough, who helped detect gravitational waves, are among those to be given knighthoods along with book shop founder Tim Waterstone.
There is an OBE for race horse trainer Lucinda Russell, who trained the 2017 Grand National winner One for Arthur.
Oil industry tycoon Sir Ian Wood, who was given a knighthood in 1994, adds to his honours by being made chancellor of the Order of the Thistle by the Queen.
He said: “I am greatly honoured by this personal recognition from Her Majesty the Queen and I share it with the many very talented, committed and enterprising people I have worked with in my life, whether in business, in public life or in my more recent philanthropic activities.
“It is also deservedly shared with my beloved family.”
Sir Craig Reedie, president of the World Anti-Doping Agency, receives a Knight Grand Cross for services to Sport while Douglas Flint is knighted for services to the finance industry.
Professor Hough has been recognised for his role in detecting gravitational waves.
The University of Glasgow academic was part of the international team that detected gravity waves - ripples in spacetime - a century after Albert Einstein predicted their existence.
The 2016 discovery was described as “the biggest scientific breakthrough of the century” and Prof Hough, who worked on the project for more than 40 years, has since been recognised with a gold medal from the Royal Astronomical Society, one of the highest accolades in science. Prof Hough said: “I am delighted and a bit overwhelmed by this honour.
Flint has been recognised with a knighthood for services to the finance industry while book shop founder Tim Waterstone becomes a Sir for services to charity and bookselling. Mr Waterstone, who was born in Glasgow but grew up in England, opened his first book shop in 1982, going on to make it the largest bookselling group in Europe.
Scottish Secretary David Mundell said: “I am pleased to see the Queen’s Birthday honours recognise the achievements of a diverse and inspiring number of our fellow Scots.”