The Foreign Office confirmed that it is in contact with police in the country after the man was detained in Almaty.
Kazakhstan media reported that he is suspected of beating his child to death at the Intercontinental Hotel in Almaty on October 24.
Astana TV said that the 18-month-old girl's mother had run into the lobby screaming for help at around 7am.
The toddler was resuscitated by an ambulance crew but died later in hospital, according to the broadcaster.
A Foreign and Commonwealth Office spokesman said: "We are in contact with the police in Kazakhstan following the death of a British child and the arrest of a British man in Almaty."