West Midlands Police said his death was currently being treated as unexplained and a post-mortem would take place "in due course".
Emergency services were called to a property in the city's Acocks Green at 7.19am today, where the boy was discovered in a critical condition.
West Midlands Ambulance Service said he was given specialist trauma care before being transported to the city's Heartlands Hospital, where he later died.
West Midlands Police said his death is being treated as unexplained.
A post-mortem examination is set to take place in due course, they added.
In a tweet, the force said: "Sadly a 10-year-old child has died after being found unconscious at an address on Blossomville Way, Acocks Green, this morning (22 August).
"His death is currently being treated as unexplained and a post-mortem will take place in due course."
A West Midlands Ambulance Service spokesman said: "We were called to reports of a medical emergency at a property on Blossomville Way at 7.19am this morning.
"Two ambulances, a paramedic officer and the Midlands Air Ambulance Critical Care Car were sent to the scene.
"On arrival we discovered one patient, a boy, who was in a critical condition.
"He received specialist trauma care at the scene before being transported to Heartlands Hospital.
"Sadly, it later became apparent at hospital that nothing could be done to save him and he was confirmed deceased."
West Midlands Police said inquiries were continuing.