Emergency services were called to HMP Addiewell in West Lothian when trouble flared on Monday night.
The Scottish Ambulance Service said a 29-year-old man was taken to St John's hospital in Livingston with head and facial injuries at around 7:50pm.
The jail's managers would not disclose whether the other injured officer was male or female but said both have been discharged from hospital.
Lothian and Borders Police said up to ten prisoners were "actively" involved in the riot.
A police spokesman said: "Police attended Addiewell Prison last night following a disturbance. The prison staff remained in control of the prison throughout.
"Inquiries are now ongoing to identify those responsible."
Private company Kalyx, which manages HMP Addiewell for the Scottish Prison Service, said:
"There has been minor damage caused, mainly as a result of burst pipes.
"Two prison officers were injured during the incident and were treated at hospital but have now been discharged."