Police and emergency services were called to the River Ayr near Catrine at around 6.20am on Saturday and recovered the body.
The death of the woman, thought to be in her 30s, is currently being treated as unexplained.
Formal identification and a post-mortem examination is to be carried out.
A police spokesman said: “Officers were called to a report of a body of a woman in the River Ayr close to Catrine.
“A post-mortem is to be carried out and the death is currently being treated as unexplained.”