Council profits from parking charges have risen by a fifth in recent years, according to figures obtained by the RAC.
Local authorities generated £36.1 million in surplus revenue from parking activities in 2014-15, compared with £30.1m in 2011-12, an RAC analysis of council returns to the Scottish Government found.
Edinburgh had the biggest surplus at £17.4m, followed by Glasgow at £11.4m and Aberdeen at £4.5m, with the three cities generating 92 per cent of the surplus generated in Scotland.
Council umbrella body Cosla said charges are designed to manage demand and can be avoided if drivers obey the rules.
Local authorities spent £39.3m managing their parking activities. Once these costs are subtracted from income then a surplus or deficit is left. There were 17 councils in surplus, 13 in deficit while two did not return accounts.
North Ayrshire Council spent £630,000 more managing its parking activities than it generated in charges.