Jula Margaret Grierson, 70, from Dumfries, was pronounced dead at the scene of Saturday’s collision on the A702 near Abington.
Police Scotland said her Kia Rio was travelling north when it was involved in the collision with a Vauxhall Astra overtaking on the southbound lane.
The Vauxhall then collided with a Volvo C30 which was heading south.
Emergency services attended the scene following the incident at around 1.30pm.
The 25-year-old man driving the Astra was taken by ambulance to the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow, where he is in a critical condition. The Volvo driver was uninjured.
Sergeant Scott Sutherland said: “I would appeal to anyone who was travelling on the A702 near to Abington yesterday afternoon, who may have witnessed the crash or observed any of the vehicles on the road prior to it happening, to please get in touch.
“I would particularly like to speak to any motorists with dashcams who were on the road around the time of the incident, as you may have captured footage that could assist with our inquiries.”