Derbyshire Police said they were called to the Post Mill Centre, South Normanton, at 10.17pm on Friday night.
The youth, who is from Ripley, near Derby, was given medical treatment at the bout but was pronounced dead on arrival at Kings Mill Hospital, in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire.
Formal identification has yet to take place and a post-mortem examination is due to be carried out to establish the cause of death.
The centre’s website stated that an “amateur open boxing show” was being held at the venue between 7pm and 11pm that night, organised by the South Normanton School of Boxing.
Meanwhile, police have appealed for anyone with footage of the bout to contact the investigations team.
A force spokesman said: “At this stage there don’t appear to be any suspicious circumstances surrounding this death but if you were at the tournament and have any footage of the bout or information that might help, please contact Detective Sergeant Debbie Yoxall on 101, quoting incident number 1162 of March 24.”
The Board of England Boxing said in a statement: “It is with great sadness that the Board of England Boxing, the governing body for boxing in England, can confirm that a boxer died last night following a bout at an England Boxing-sanctioned event in Derby.
“We are extremely saddened by this and would like to express our sincere condolences to the family and friends of the person involved in this terrible and shocking incident.
“The Board of England Boxing has set up an investigation to establish the facts of what happened and will provide an update when we know more.
“We are also asking all of the England Boxing coaches, officials and volunteers that were present on the night to co-operate with the police investigation and assist the authorities in any way they can.
“We will be providing support to people that have been affected by this terrible news.”
To contact England Boxing, call 07515 597077 or email [email protected]@englanboxing.org.