Scottish history timeline from 1054 to 2014

The Declaration of Arbroath.

A look at the main events in Scottish history over the past 1000 years.

1054

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Southern Scotland under the control of Malcolm Canmore

1072

Norman invasion of Scotland

1124

David I crowned king

1128

Holyrood Abbey founded at Edinburgh

1138

Scots defeated by English at Battle of Standard

1296

Scots defeated by English at Dunbar; Stone of Destiny moved to London

1297

Scots defeat English at Battle of Stirling Bridge under William Wallace

1298

English defeat Scots at Battle of Falkirk

1303

Scots defeat English at Battle of Roslin

1305

William Wallace captured and executed

1306

Robert the Bruce crowned king of Scotland

1314

Scots defeat English at Battle of Bannockburn

1320

Declaration of Arbroath is signed

2017

Death of Robert the Bruce

English invade Scotland under Edward III

1349

Black Death kills over 200,000 Scots

1371

Stuart Dynasty begins

1413

University of St Andrews founded

1423

King James I released by English

1437

King James I assassinated

1451

University of Glasgow founded

1472

Shetland and Orkney become part of Scotland

1482

Berwick-Upon-Tweed captured by English

1495

University of Aberdeen founded

1513

Scots defeated at Battle of Flodden

1542

Mary Queen of Scots is born and crowned at age one

1559

John Knox appointed first Protestant minister in Edinburgh

1560

Protestant Reformation legislation is passed by parliament

1566

King James VI born

1576

First Bible (New Testament) printed in Scotland

1582

University of Edinburgh founded

1587

Mary Queen of Scots executed

1600

New Year celebrated in Scotland for first time

1603

Union of the Crowns as King James VI becomes King James I of England

1614

John Napier invents logarithms

1639

The Covenanter Wars begin

1645

Glasgow and Edinburgh captured by Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army

1649

King Charles I executed

1652

Great Fire of Glasgow

1660

Monarchy restored as Charles II proclaimed King of England, Scotland and Ireland

1661

The first Scottish newspaper, Mercurius Caledonius, is printed

1665

Queen Anne, the last of the Stuart monarchs, is born

1678

First Glasgow to Edinburgh coach service

1692

The Massacre of Glencoe

1695

Bank of Scotland established

1698

Darien Expedition sets sail from Leith for Panama

1707

Act of Union is passed

1711

David Hume born in Edinburgh

1715

First Jacobite rebellion

1720

Charles Edward Stuart born in Rome

1726

James Hutton born in Edinburgh

1727

Royal Bank of Scotland founded

1728

Robert Adam (architect) born; James Cook (navigator) born

1734

Death of Rob Roy McGregor

1745

Second Jacobite rebellion led by Bonnie Prince Charlie

1746

Battle of Culloden ends Second Jacobite rebellion

1747

John Paul Jones (US naval captain) born in Dumfries

1750

Robert Fergusson (poet) born in Edinburgh

1754

Joseph Black discovers carbon dioxide; St Andrews Society of Golfers founded

2017

John McAdam (road builder) born in Ayr

1757

Thomas Telford (civil engineer) born

1758

Alexander Nasmyth (painter) born

1759

Robert Burns born in Alloway, Ayrshire

1760

Carron Ironworks founded in Falkirk

1762

Highland Clearances begin

1766

James Craig’s New Town plan for Edinburgh is approved; Charles Mackintosh (inventor) born

1769

Steam engine patented by James Watt

1770

Source of the Blue Nile discovered by James Bruce

1771

Walter Scott (poet, novelist) born; Mungo Park (explorer) born

1772

Robert Stevenson (engineer) born

1776

Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations

2017

First lighthouse in Scotland built

1790

Forth and Clyde Canal opened

1811

James Young Simpson (medical pioneer) born

1813

David Livingstone (missionary and explorer) born

1814

Sutherland Clearances begin

1817

The Scotsman newspaper is first published; Birth of Alexander “Greek” Thomson (architect)

1820

Radical Rising begins

2017

Caledonian Canal between Inverness and Fort William opened; Visit of George IV organised by Sir Walter Scott; Death of Henry Raeburn (painter)

1824

Great Fire of Edinburgh; world’s first football club established in Edinburgh

1831

James Clerk Maxwell born in Edinburgh

1835

Andrew Carnegie (businessman and philanthropist) born in Dunfermline

1838

Clydesdale Bank founded; John Muir (conservationist) born in Dunbar

1842

Glasgow to Edinburgh railway line opened

1843

Free Church of Scotland established

1846

Robert Liston (medical pioneer) born in Linlithgow

2017

Alexander Graham Bell (inventor) born in Edinburgh

1848

Mary Slessor (missionary) born in Aberdeen

1850

Robert Louis Stevenson (novelist) born in Edinburgh; Thomas Lipton (businessman) born in Glasgow

1852

William Ramsay (chemist) born

1854

Patrick Geddes (town planner) born in Ballater

1859

Arthur Conan Doyle (author) born in Edinburgh

1860

First open golf championship held at Prestwick; James Barrie (author) born

1867

Queens Park, Scotland’s first senior football club formed in Glasgow

1868

Charles Rennie Mackintosh (artist and architect) born

1870

Harry Lauder (entertainer) born in Portobello

1872

First Scotland v England football match

1873

Edinburgh Evening News is first published

1877

Blantyre Colliery Disaster

1888

Scottish Labour Party formed; John Logie Baird (inventor) born

1890

Forth Bridge is opened

1892

Keir Hardie is elected as the first socialist to win a seat in the UK Parliament

1895

Scotland’s coldest ever temperature (-27.2C) is recorded at Braemar

1896

Glasgow Subway opened

1909

1909 – Matt Busby (football player and manager) born

1913

Benny Lynch (boxer) born

1915

Gretna Rail Disaster

1923

Flying Scotsman launched

1924

Eduardo Paolozzi (artist) born in Leith; Eric Liddell (sports person) born

1926

John Logie Baird publicly demonstrates television for the first time

1928

Penicillin discovered by Alexander Fleming

1930

Sean Connery (actor) born

1934

Scottish National Party formed

1936

Jim Clark (racing driver) born in Fife; Oor Wullie and The Broons first appear in The Sunday Post

1937

The world record for highest attendance at a football match was achieved at Hampden as Scotland entertained England

1938

Glasgow Empire Exhibition held at Bellahouston Park

1939

Jackie Stewart (racing driver) born in Dumbartonshire

1941

Clydebank Blitz

1942

Billy Connolly (comedian) born in Glasgow

1947

First Edinburgh Festival is held

1950

Stone of Destiny liberated from Westminster Abbey

1957

Scottish Television broadcasts for first time

1959

Scotland opens its first nuclear power station at Chapelcross, near Annan, Dumfriesshire

1963

Last hanging in Scotland

1967

Celtic lift the European Cup in Lisbon

1968

Hurricane Low Q hits Glasgow, 20 people killed and hundreds of families left homeless

1971

Ibrox Stadium Disaster; Boxer Ken Buchanan wins World Lightweight Boxing Championship

1979

Scotland votes Yes to Devolution, but fails to achieve the 40% turnout rule as stipulated by the UK government

1988

Scotland on Sunday published for the first time

1990

Scotland win rugby grand slam after beating England 13-7 at Murrayfield

2017

Skye Bridge opened

1996

Stone of Destiny returned to Edinburgh; Dolly the Sheep cloned

1999

Scottish Parliament opened

2013

Andy Murray becomes first British male to win Wimbledon since 1936

2014

Scotland votes No to independence