Among the vehicles involved is an RAF search and rescue helicopter which will be winching personnel onto an emergency tug vessel.
A spokeswoman from the fire service said that it was a chance to test how emergency services worked with one another.
Exercises will be based in the Forth Estuary, from a position close to Hound Point, South Queensferry, and will run eastwards to beyond the Isle of May.
Fettes Avenue close to police headquarters and Leith dockyard will also be used in the exercise.
A police spokesman said there would be “heightened presence” of emergency vehicles in these areas throughout the day.
The exercise has been organised by the Scottish Government’s Scottish Multi-Agency Resilience Training Exercise Unit (SMARTU).