The First Minister said the rise was “partly to meet a growing demand for services” and also because more GPs are opting to work part-time instead of full-time.
Specialist GP training posts are open to those who have done at least seven years of medical school as well as foundation training.
The Scottish Government hopes the move will result in a “more sustainable” GP workforce by 2019.
Ms Sturgeon also confirmed a scheme that encourages former GPs back into work is to be expanded.
She said: “The change will take place next year, meaning that from 2019 onwards, we will begin to see additional GPs in the community.”