Almost 80 per cent of people want better equality in income and assets and believe politicians should be doing more to address inequality, the charity said.
A new campaign to raise awareness of poverty has been launched by Oxfam and it wants to see political parties adopt more radical policy measures in areas such as employment and climate change in the lead up to the Holyrood elections in May.
A survey of more than 1,100 people commissioned by the charity found 79 per cent of respondents favour wealth being distributed more equally than it currently is in Scotland. On politicians, 63 per cent said they should do more to address economic inequality, with 22 per cent saying they are doing all they reasonably can.
Jamie Livingstone, head of Oxfam Scotland, said: “At a time when nearly one in five people in Scotland lives in poverty, it is encouraging to see such support for more action to reduce economic inequality in Scotland.
“We agree, because we are increasingly aware of the barrier extreme inequality creates to tackling poverty.
“Not all political power rests in Scotland, but the Scottish Parliament can do more and this poll suggests Scots back a much more even distribution of wealth.”
The Even It Up campaign has been launched on Burns Day to “invoke the spirit” of the Bard and his famous song A Man’s A Man For A’ That.
Folk singer Sheena Wellington, who performed the Burns song at the opening of the Scottish Parliament in May 1999, is supporting the campaign.
She said: “It’s completely appropriate that Oxfam Scotland is launching this campaign with the words of Robert Burns. His belief in the fundamental equality of every human being shines through in his work – and especially in A Man’s A Man.
“I wish Oxfam all the very best with the Even It Up campaign, and hope that the Scottish Parliament can play its part in moving to a fairer Scotland in a fairer world, where people’s chances in life aren’t blighted by poverty and extreme inequality.”