The former SNP leader also told the Treasury minister Anna Soubry that she was “cavorting about like some demented junior minister”.
Mr Salmond’s remarks came during a House of Commons debate on the make-up of select committees.
Ms Soubry appeared to irritate Mr Salmond when she interrupted him and asked him to “move on”.
Mr Salmond replied: “Move on where? Luckily the honourable lady is on the front bench and therefore would not be standing for chair of one of these select committees. Otherwise she would have done her chances no good whatsoever.
“The Treasury bench should behave better in these debates, she should be setting an example to your new members not cavorting about like some demented junior minister – behave yourself, woman.”
The incident had echoes of a sexism row that engulfed David Cameron when the Prime Minister was criticised for telling a Labour female MP to “calm down dear”.
Sarah Wollaston, a Tory MP, said: “It’s totally inappropriate in this day and age to say that to a female colleague. It is sexist, this Parliament is now nearly a third women and it’s time for this derogatory language to stop.”
Ms Soubry said: “Alex Salmond seems to think women are to be seen but not heard. This kind of attitude belongs firmly in the 19th century.Salmond can dish it out but it appears he can’t take it.”