James Bruce, 40, from the Peterhead area, was taken to hospital after an "incident" but later died.
His death is being treated as suspicious, police said.
A spokeswoman for Grampian Police said she did not know what injuries the man had or whether he had been assaulted, stabbed or shot.
A team of around 50 officers are involved in the investigation following an incident in the Claymore Crescent area of Boddam around, or just after, 5pm yesterday.
Police said they believed Mr Bruce was in the Claymore Crescent area.
Detective Chief Constable Malcolm Stewart, the senior investigating officer in the case for Grampian Police, said: "Inquiries are at an early stage and we are following several lines of inquiry.
"We have a large team dedicated to the investigation and we'd like to reassure members of the public that this appears to be an isolated incident.
"We'd also like to thank the people of Boddam for their patience as we carry out our inquiries in the area."
Boddam is around two miles south of Peterhead in Aberdeenshire.
Anyone with information is asked to contact police.