Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 23 September
National day of Saudi Arabia
1678: The Earl of Mar was commissioned to raise a regiment, the “Earl of Mar’s Gray Breeks”, later the Royal Scots Fusiliers.
1817: Spain signed treaty with Britain to end slave trade.
1846: The planet Neptune was discovered by the German astronomer Johann Galle, following predictions of Leverrier and Adams.
1848: Chewing-gum was first commercially produced by John Curtis on a stove in his home in Bangor, Maine, and sold under the name of the “State of Maine Pure Spruce Gum”.
1912: The first Keystone Cops film, Cohen Collects a Debt, was released in the United States by Mack Sennett.
1940: The George Cross, the highest British civilian award for acts of courage, was instituted.
1951: King George VI had an operation to remove his left lung at Buckingham Palace.
1952: Rocky Marciano won the world heavyweight boxing title in Philadelphia, knocking out Jersey Joe Walcott in the 13th round.
1973: Former Argentine dictator Juan Peron was returned to power in Buenos Aires in presidential election.
1974: Ceefax, the BBC’s teletext service, was inaugurated.
1978: Egypt’s president, Anwar Sadat, returned home to hero’s welcome after Camp David summit that resulted in agreement on framework for peace with Israel.
1990: Saddam Hussein said he would destroy Israel and launch an all-out war before allowing the United Nations embargo to “strangle” Iraq.
1991: Skeleton frozen for more than 500 years was dug out of the Similaun Glacier in the Italian-Austrian Alps. Still wearing traces of leather boots and clinging to an axe, it was believed to be remains of a hunter.
1991: Access to copies of all 800 Dead Sea Scrolls was thrown open by Huntingdon Library, California, breaking cartel of seven experts who had kept exclusive rights to key documents since their discovery more than 40 years before.
1994: Conditions in the Glenglova nursing home in Glasgow, where a 79-year-old woman died, were described as a scandal in a sheriff’s public inquiry judgment.
1999: Nasa announced that it had lost contact with the Mars Climate Orbiter.
1999: Qantas Flight 1 over-ran the runway in Bangkok during a storm. Although some passengers received only minor injuries, it is the worst crash in Qantas’s history since 1960.
2004: At least 1,070 in Haiti were reported killed by floods caused by Hurricane Jeanne.
Julio Iglesias, singer, 70; Cherie Booth, QC, and wife of former prime minister Tony Blair, 59; James George Alexander Bannerman Carnegie, 3rd Duke of Fife, 84; Larry Mize, golfer, 55; Elizabeth Peña, actress, 52; Juan Martín del Potro, Argentine tennis player, 25; Mickey Rooney, film actor, 93; Bruce Springsteen, rock singer, 64; Jeff Squire, Welsh rugby player, 62; Nicholas Witchell, broadcaster, 60.
Births: 63BC Augustus Caesar, first Roman emperor; 1880 John Boyd Orr, 1st Baron Boyd Orr, biologist and Nobel Peace prizewinner; 1930 Ray Charles, singer; 1943 Tony Gubba, sports broadcaster.
Deaths: AD704 St Adamnan of Iona, biographer of Columba; 1889 Wilkie Collins, novelist and pioneer of detective fiction (The Moonstone); 1889 Eliza Cook, poet; 1939 Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis.