Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 28 March.
1642: The Scots Guards were commissioned.
1800: Act of Union with Britain passed in Ireland’s parliament.
1854: Britain declared (Crimean) war on Russia.
1898: First German naval bill, introduced by Alfred von Tirpitz, began Germany’s naval expansion.
1910: The first seaplane, designed by Henri Fabre of France, had its maiden flight near Marseilles.
1912: Women’s Enfranchisement Bill was defeated by 14 votes on its second reading.
1913: The first Morris Oxford left factory at Cowley.
1917: The Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps founded in Britain.
1920: Douglas Elton Ullman married Gladys Smith in America – the wedding was kept secret until after the ceremony, as they were better known as Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford.
1930: Constantinople changed its name to Istanbul, and Angora to Ankara.
1938: Japan installed puppet government of Chinese Republic in Nanking.
1939: Madrid’s surrender to General Francisco Franco ended Spanish Civil War.
1955: The lowest cricket Test score was recorded – 26 by New Zealand against England at Eden Park, Auckland.
1960: Nineteen Glasgow firemen and salvage workers died when walls of Cheapside whisky bond blew out soon after they started fighting a blaze which later spread to a tobacco warehouse, an ice cream factory and Harland & Wolff’s engine works.
1964: Radio Caroline began transmissions from a ship in the North Sea.
1967: United Nations secretary-general U Thant proposed general truce in Vietnam, followed by peace talks, and the United States said it would go along.
1977: Breakfast TV in Britain started as an experiment on Yorkshire TV.
1979: Radiation leak at Three Mile Island nuclear station, near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, United States. The atomic core began to melt down.
1989: In the USSR’s first democratic party elections, many Communist candidates chosen by the government were ousted.
1990: Five people were arrested in British-American operation at Heathrow, to stop export of 40 nuclear trigger devices for Iraq.
1991: Patricia Scotland, 35, was appointed Britain’s first black woman Queen’s Counsel.
1991: Tens of thousands of Muscovites defied a ban on demonstrations by rallying in support of Boris Yeltsin, president Mikhail Gorbachev’s chief rival.
1995: Tom Hanks won Best Actor Oscar for Forrest Gump, thereby becoming the first actor since Spencer Tracy in 1937-38 to win in successive years.
2003: A British soldier was killed in a “friendly fire” incident in Iraq when the tank he was in was attacked by American jets.
2010: Chinese car-maker Geely signed a deal to buy Volvo from America’s Ford for £1.2 billion.
Births: 1515 St Teresa of Avila; 1483 Raphael, painter; 1660 King George I; 1820 Sir William Howard Russell, war correspondent; 1868 Maxim Gorky, novelist; 1902 Dame Flora Robson, actress; 1921 Sir Dirk Bogarde, actor and author.
Deaths: 1868 Earl of Cardigan, leader of disastrous cavalry charge in Crimean War; 1941 Virginia Woolf, writer; 1969 Dwight D Eisenhower (Ike), army commander and 34th US president; 1974 Dorothy Fields, lyricist; 1977 Eric Shipton, mountaineer who made five assaults on Everest; 1985 Marc Chagall, painter; 1994 Eugène Ionesco, playwright; 2002 Billy Wilder, film director; 2004 Sir Peter Ustinov, actor, dramatist and film director; 2013 Richard Griffiths OBE, actor.