Events, birthdays and anniversaries from 10 August
National day of Ecuador.
1675: Greenwich Observatory established by King Charles II, and its foundation stone laid.
1792: The French monarchy abolished.
1842: The Mines Act was passed by parliament, forbidding women and children in Britain to work underground.
1872: Education (Scotland) Act, passed. It provided for a state elementary education for all children, and amended previous provisions in the acts of 1696, 1793, 1839 and 1861.
1895: The first London Promenade Concert took place, founded by Henry Wood (later Sir) and Robert Newman, and played by an orchestra of 80, conducted by Henry Wood in the Queen’s Hall. Standing tickets cost one shilling.
1904: Japan’s navy crippled Russian fleet off Port Arthur, Manchuria.
1911: Members of Parliament granted salaries for the first time. Figure was set at £400 per annum.
1913: Peace ending Balkan War was signed in Bucharest.
1920: The GPO issued the first airmail stickers.
1952: European Coal and Steel Community, forerunner of the EC, was founded in Luxembourg.
1954: Sir Gordon Richards, champion jockey, retired after 4,870 wins.
1961: Britain applied for membership of the EEC.
1966: America’s first Moon satellite, Orbiter 1, was launched.
1985: Pop singer Simon Le Bon was rescued after his yacht Drum capsized off Cornwall during the Fastnet race.
1990: Washington mayor Marion Barry was found guilty of possessing cocaine.
1992: The paramilitary Ulster Defence Association was outlawed.
1993: Health Department figures showed hospital waiting lists above the million mark for the first time since records began.
2006: Britain went on “critical” security alert after the arrests of 24 British nationals about an alleged plot to detonate suicide bombs on airliners bound for the United States. Hundreds of flights to and from Heathrow were cancelled.
2009: Twenty people were killed in Handlová, Trencin Region, in the deadliest mining disaster in Slovakia’s history.
Charlie Dimmock, television gardener, 47; Ian Anderson MBE, Dunfermline-born rock singer-musician (Jethro Tull), 66; Rosanna Arquette, actress, 54; Antonio Banderas, actor, 53; Julia Fordham, singer, 51; Professor Alexander Goehr, composer, Professor of Music, Cambridge University 1976-99, 81; Roy Keane, footballer, manager and television pundit, 42; Kate O’Mara, actress, 74; Anita Lonsbrough-Porter MBE, 1960 Olympic swimming champion, journalist, 72.
Births: 1740 Samuel Arnold, organist and composer; 1874 Herbert Hoover, 31st US president; 1893 Douglas Moore, composer; 1904 Geraldo, dance-band leader; 1909 Leo Fender, pioneer of electric guitar; 1910 Cardinal Gordon Gray, Archbishop of St Andrews and Edinburgh; 1928 Eddie Fisher, singer; 1930 Barry Unsworth, novelist.
Deaths: 1784 Allan Ramsay, artist; 1806 Johann Haydn, composer; 1949 John Haigh, acid bath murderer (hanged); 1960 Oswald Veblen, mathematician; 1969 Sharon Tate, actress (murdered); 1976 Bert Oldfield, Australian wicket-keeper and Test cricketer; 2008 Isaac Hayes, soul musician.