EVENTS, anniversaries and birthdays for 1 August
1 August is Lammas, autumn Quarter Day, and the National day of Switzerland.
1560: Scotland’s parliament abolished papal jurisdiction and approved a Calvinistic Confession of Faith, founding Presbyterian Church of Scotland under the leadership of John Knox.
1747: The wearing of tartan was prohibited. Penalty for a first offence was six months’ jail and, for a second, seven years’ transportation.
1779: French fleet took over domination of English Channel.
1793: The kilogram was introduced in France as the first metric weight.
1798: Horatio Nelson destroyed French fleet off Aboukir (Battle of the Nile).
1831: New London Bridge, designed by John Rennie, was opened. It lasted 140 years, was then sold and rebuilt in Arizona.
1834: Slavery was abolished in the British Empire.
1904: Japan declared war on China over Korea question.
1914: Germany declared war on Russia.
1936: The 11th Olympic Games opened in Berlin, when the Olympic flame was carried from Greece for the first time.
1963: Separate representation of the Scottish peerage in terms of Article XXII of the Treaty of Union by 16 of their members was abolished.
1963: Britain agreed to grant independence to Malta in 1964.
1967: University of Dundee, formerly University College, Dundee, incorporated in the University of St Andrews in 1890, became a separate university.
1971: US Defence Department announced pull-out of 3,000 American troops from Vietnam.
1979: The Queen Mother was installed as Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, the only woman to hold the position.
1991: Croatia issued general mobilisation call as civil war with Serbia, which had claimed 100 lives in two days, turned into Europe’s most violent conflict since Second World War.
1992: Linford Christie won the 100 metres and oarsmen Steve Redgrave and Matthew Pinsent the coxless pairs at the Olympic Games in Barcelona.
2002: A ban on hunting with dogs came into force in Scotland.
2008: Eleven climbers and guides were swept to their deaths in a storm on 28,251ft Himalayan peak K2.
Births: 10BC Claudius, Roman Emperor, and uncle of Caligula; 1545 Andrew Melville, reformer (nicknamed “The Blast”), principal of Glasgow University, and St Mary’s College, St Andrews; 1819 Herman Melville, American author (Moby Dick); 1822 James Grant, Edinburgh-born novelist; 1930 Lionel Bart, composer and lyricist; 1936 Yves St Laurent, fashion designer.
Deaths: 1714 Queen Anne, the last Stuart sovereign; 1834 Robert Morrison, missionary who translated Bible into Chinese; 1902 Ludwig Beckmann, painter; 1998 Eva Bartok, actress; 2011 Stan Barstow, British writer.