EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1492: Spain captured Granada from the Moors.
1757: Clive of India captured Calcutta after it had been seized by the Nawab of Bengal, who imprisoned 146 British prisoners in the notorious “black hole” – only 23 survived.
1799: Britain joined Russian-Turkish alliance.
1839: First pictures of the Moon taken by Frenchman Louis Daguerre.
1870: Lady Gough’s Book of Etiquette published. It forbade the placing of books by male authors next to those written by female authors on any bookshelf – unless the authors were married.
1896: The Jameson raid into the Boer colony of Transvaal, to support British settlers, ended in failure.
1900: Open door policy in China was announced by United States secretary of state John Hay.
1901: The first municipal crematorium was opened, in Hull.
1905: Russians surrendered Manchurian city of Port Arthur to Japanese.
1909: Dismissal of Yuan Shih-kai placed Chinese administration in Manchu hands.
1932: Manchukuo Republic was proclaimed in Manchuria.
1933: Anarchists and Syndicalists uprising in Barcelona.
1942: Philippines capital of Manila was captured by Japanese.
1943: Germans began withdrawal from Caucasus.
1946: Deposed King Zog of Albania fled the country.
1947: Much Binding in the Marsh, a radio series of a fictitious RAF station, started, starring Richard Murdoch, Kenneth Horne and Sam Costa.
1965: Ayub Khan won Pakistan presidential elections.
1971: Ibrox disaster in Glasgow as stair barriers collapsed – 66 people died and 200 were injured.
1976: Platinum hallmarks introduced.
1987: The publishers of Enid Blyton’s Noddy books bowed to pressure groups and agreed to expunge all “racism” from them. Golliwogs would now become gnomes.
1988: Right-wing guerrillas ambushed train near Mozambique’s western border, killing at least 22 and injuring 71.
1991: Leftist rebels brought down Unite States Army helicopter in El Salvador. One crew member died from injuries sustained in crash, and two others were apparently murdered by rebels.
1998: The home secretary, Jack Straw, was named as the Cabinet minister whose son was involved in drug dealing allegations.
2001: Sila Calderon became the first female governor of Puerto Rico.
2004: Stardust successfully flew past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that were returned to Earth.
2006: An explosion in a coal mine in Sago, West Virginia trapped and killed 12 miners, while leaving one in a critical condition.
2011: The Open University celebrated the 40th anniversary of its first lecture broadcast on BBC television. Seven-thousand OU programmes have been aired in that time.
Births: 1669 Thomas Yalden, poet; 1727 General James Wolfe, British soldier and hero of the Battle of Quebec; 1868 Arthur Gore, Wimbledon tennis champion; 1905 Sir Michael Tippett, composer; 1920 Professor Isaac Asimov, US scientist and science fiction author; 1932 Richard Thorp, actor (Emmerdale).
Deaths: AD17 Ovid (Publius Ovidus Naso), poet; AD17 Livy, historian; 1946 Eleanor Rathbone, social reformer; 1948 Edna May, actress; 1974 Tex Ritter, singing cowboy; 1982 Sir Thomas Galbraith, MP; 1983 Dick Emery, comedian; 1994 Lord Maxwell, QC; 1998 Frank Muir, writer/broadcaster; 2007 George Macdonald Fraser, novelist (Flashman books); 2011 Pete Postlethwaite OBE, actor.