Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 27 June
1693: The Ladies’ Mercury, the first magazine for women, was published.
1778: The Liberty Bell was moved back to Philadelphia after the British Army left.
1858: Treaty of Tientsin ended war between Britain and China, whereby China opened additional ports to British commerce and legalised opium trade.
1937: Duke of Windsor married Mrs Wallis Warfield Simpson in France.
1939: First transatlantic airline was inaugurated by Pan American Airways Boeing flying boat Yankee Clipper, between Newfoundland and Southampton, carrying 19 passengers.
1941: The BBC adopted the opening four notes of Beethoven’s 5th Symphony as a Morse message of victory (three dots and a dash) to give hope to Nazi-occupied Europe.
1943: United States bombers attacked German-occupied city of Athens.
1944: Allied forces took Cherbourg, France.
1945: Charter establishing United Nations was signed in San Francisco by 50 nations.
1954: The world’s first atomic power station, at Obninsk near Moscow, went into production.
1967: Britain’s first cash dispenser was opened by Barclay’s Bank in Enfield.
1971: The first national Scrabble competition was held in London and won by a teacher, Stephen Haskell. The game was invented by Alfred Butt in 1932, and was called Lexico. He changed the name in 1940 to Criss Cross Words, but finally marketed it in 1946 as Scrabble.
1970: Alexander Dubcek was expelled from Czechoslovak Communist Party.
1990: The European Commission ordered that British Aerospace repay £44.4 million of ‘sweeteners’ tied to the sale of the Rover Group.
1991: Tanks and helicopters clashed in first fighting of Yugoslav civil war as federal army units invaded Slovenia.
1992: Dutch tennis player Richard Krajicek caused a Wimbledon rumpus when he said 80 per cent of women players were ‘fat pigs’.
1993: The United States launched a missile attack on Iraqi intelligence posts in Baghdad in retaliation for an alleged plot to assassinate president George Bush. Eight people died.
1996: Actor Hugh Grant was arrested in Hollywood and charged with indecent conduct with a prostitute in a public place.
1996: John McCallion, MP, resigned from Labour’s front bench in protest over the party’s proposed referendum on a Scottish parliament.
2007: On his first day as prime minister after taking over from Tony Blair, Gordon Brown promised ‘politics of change’ and made sweeping Cabinet changes.
2007: The Brazilian Military Police invaded the favelas of Complexo do Alemão.
2009: Two Northern Ireland loyalist paramilitary groups, the UVF and Red Hand Commando, announced they had completed decommissioning.
2012: The Queen and Northern Ireland’s deputy first minister Martin McGuinness shook hands for the first time. The meeting took place during the Queen’s visit to Northern Ireland as part of her Diamond Jubilee tour.
Wendy Alexander, former Labour MSP 1999-2011, 52; J J Abrams, television and film producer, 49; Michael Ball OBE, actor and singer, 53; Tommy Cannon, comedian, 77; Beth Chatto OBE, author and garden designer, 92; David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, Hereditary Great Lord Chamberlain of England, film director, 55; Shirley Anne Field, actress, 77; Bruce Johnston, pop singer (Beach Boys), 73; Robert King, conductor, 55; Mary McAleese, president of Ireland 1997-2011, 64; Tobey Maguire, actor, 40; Baron (Ian) Lang of Monkton, secretary of state for Scotland 1990-5, 75; Kevin Pietersen MBE, cricketer, 35; Meera Syal CBE, writer and actress, 54; Vera Wang, fashion designer, 66; Jo Frost, nanny and TV personality (Supernanny), 45; Nico Rosberg, F1 racing driver, 30; Raul, Spanish footballer, 38.
Births: 1846 Charles Parnell, leader of the Home Rule movement in Ireland; 1880 Helen Keller, American blind and deaf scholar and writer; 1888 Antoinette Perry, American actress who gave name to ‘Tony’ awards; 1937 Robin Hall, folk singer; 1938 Alan Coren, journalist and broadcaster.
Deaths: 1816 Samuel Hood, admiral; 1829 James Smithson, English scientist whose bequest established Smithsonian Institute in Washington; 1844 Joseph Smith, founder, Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (murdered); Cubby Broccoli, Bond film producer; ; 2001 Jack Lemmon, actor; 2001 Joan Sims, actress; 2002 John Entwistle, rock musician (The Who); 2006 Robert Carrier, chef, cookery writer and broadcaster; 2014 Bobby Womack, US soul singer.