Events, birthdays and anniversaries on 11 July.
1274: Robert the Bruce was born at Turnberry Castle.
1346: Charles IV of Luxembourg elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1533: Pope Clement VII excommunicated King Henry VIII.
1690: William III defeated James II at the Battle of the Boyne.
1739: Pluto moved from being the ninth to the eight most distant planet from the sun.
1776: Captain Cook sailed from Portsmouth in the Resolution, accompanied by the Discovery, on his third and last expedition.
1804: Aaron Burr. US vice-president, mortally wounded Alexander Hamilton, the former secretary of the Treasury, in a duel.
1810: Napoleonic Empire annexed Holland.
1812: US troops invaded Canada.
1818: John Keats visited the first home of Robert Burns in Alloway and wrote his sonnet Written In the cottage where Burns was born.
1848: Waterloo Station in London was opened.
1859: The chime of Big Ben in the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament was heard for the first time.
1881: The “ghost-ship” Flying Dutchman was sighted at 4am 50 miles off the Cape of Good Hope, by the crew of HMS Inconstant.
1882: The British fleet bombed Alexandria.
1892: The US patent office declared that the electric light carbon for the incandescent lamp was invented by JW Swan and not Thomas Edison.
1893: First cultured pearl was obtained by Kokichi Mikimoto.
1895: Auguste and Louis Lumiere, who invented film, demonstrated it to scientists.
1897: Solomon Andree left Spitsbergen in a balloon for the North Pole.
1900: Boer general De la Rey captured Scots Greys and Lincolns at the Battle of Silkaatsnek
1914: Babe Ruth made his debut for the Boston Red Sox.
1915: German cruiser Köningsberg sank off Dar-es-Salaam.
1921: Mongolia gained independence from China.
1924: Scottish athlete Eric Liddell won the Olympic 400 metres sprint in Paris.
1950: Puppets Andy Pandy, Teddy and Looby Loo first appeared on BBC television.
1962: The first transatlantic TV transmission took place via the satellite Telstar I.
1975: China’s great terracotta army was uncovered near the ancient capital of Xian.
1976: France performed a nuclear test on Muruora island.
1979: America’s Skylab I returned to earth after 34,981 orbits since its launch in 1973.
1981: Neva Rockefeller became the first woman ordered to pay her husband alimony.
1995: Actor Hugh Grant was fined £750 by a Los Angeles court and put on probation for two years when he admitted lewd conduct with a prostitute.
2006: 209 people were killed in a series of bomb attacks in Mumbai, India.
2010: Spain beat the Netherlands 1-0 in South Africa to win the World Cup for the first time.
2001: Neptune completed first orbit since its discovery in 1846.