Events, birthdays and anniversaries for 12 August
The Glorious Twelfth. Start of the grouse shooting season.
1291: The Great Cause lawsuit on Scottish succession was adjourned at Berwick.
1530: Florence was restored to Medici family in Italy by Holy Roman Empire troops.
1746: Highland dress prohibited by parliament.
1759: Russian and Austrian forces defeated Prussians at Kunersdorf, Germany, and Dresden fell into Austrian hands.
1813: Austria declared war on France.
1851: The first Hundred Guinea Cup was offered by the Royal Yacht Squadron of Great Britain for a race around the Isle of Wight. It was won by the United States yacht America, which beat the British Aurora. It became known as the America’s Cup.
1877: Thomas Edison drew the sketch of his cylinder with stylus and sent it to a mechanic with the message “Make this”. It came back as the first phonograph recording machine.
1898: Hawaiian Islands in Pacific were transferred to United States.
1908: The first Model T Ford, affectionately known as the “Tin Lizzie”, was produced, replacing the Model A.
1938: Germany began mobilisation of its armed forces.
1941: French Marshal Henri Philippe Petain called on his countrymen to give full support to Nazi Germany.
1944: Pluto – pipe line under the ocean – supplying petrol across the English Channel to allied forces in France, went into operation from Shanklin on the Isle of Wight.
1953: Soviet Union exploded its first hydrogen bomb in the Pacific – confirmed by a Moscow announcement on 20 August.
1960: The first communications satellite was launched – the United States’ Echo I.
1970: West Germany and Soviet Union signed non-aggression pact in Moscow.
1981: IBM introduced its first personal computer, heralding a revolution in small business and home computing.
1990: Iraqi president Saddam Hussein offered to link Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait to Israeli withdrawal from occupied territories and other conditions.
1990: Douglas Croskery became first British casualty of Gulf crisis when he was shot dead by Iraqi soldiers while trying to escape from Kuwait.
1991: It was announced that the first modern toll road was to be built at Birmingham, to relieve congestion on the M6.
1994: Billionaire benefactor John Paul Getty II pledged £1million to keep Canova’s sculpture The Three Graces in Britain.
Mark Knopfler OBE, Glasgow-born singer, songwriter and guitarist (Dire Straits), 64; Casey Affleck, actor, 38; Mario Balotelli, Italian footballer, 23; Michael Brunson OBE, television political journalist, 73; Bobby Geddes, footballer and coach, 53; William Goldman, novelist and screenwriter, 82; Simon Groom, former Blue Peter presenter, 63; George Hamilton, actor, 74; Pete Sampras, seven-times Wimbledon singles champion, 42; Tanita Tikaram, singer, 44; Lizzie Webb, television fitness expert, 65.
Births: 1753 Thomas Bewick, wood engraver and naturalist; 1881 Cecil B DeMille, film producer 1918 Wing Commander Guy Gibson, VC, leader of the Dam Busters’ raid; 1922 Fulton McKay, actor.
Deaths: 1827 William Blake, poet and artist; 1848 George Stephenson, engineer who constructed the Rocket and first railway; 1964 Ian Fleming, author and creator of James Bond; 1992 John Cage, composer.