EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1848: Revolution broke out in Vienna with university demonstrations.
1854: Britain and France concluded alliance with Turkey against Russia.
1867: Napoleon III withdrew French support from Maximilian of Mexico.
1868: Britain annexed Basutoland, South Africa.
1904: The first mainland electric train left Liverpool for Southport.
1917: Key event of the Russian Revolution as soldiers of the Volynsky Regiment refused to fire on demonstrators and instead beat to death their commander, Captain Laskevitch.
1930: Mahatma Gandhi opened civil disobedience campaign in India against its British rulers. His 240-mile march to the sea was in protest against the British monopoly on the production and sale of salt.
1935: A 30-mile speed limit was imposed on roads in built-up areas in Britain.
1945: Vienna Opera House was destroyed by bombing.
1966: General Suharto was sworn in as acting president of Indonesia after president Sukarno was stripped of authority.
1968: Island of Mauritius in Indian Ocean, a British colony since 1810, became independent member of Commonwealth.
1972: Britain and China agreed to exchange ambassadors, 22 years after London first recognised the Peking government.
1975: United Nations Security Council adopted resolution calling on Greek and Turkish Cypriots to resume negotiations for political settlement.
1984: First day of miners’ strike against pit closures.
1987: New South Wales Supreme Court rejected British Government application for injunction banning Spycatcher, memoirs of former MI5 officer Peter Wright.
1987: Government gave go-ahead for building of Sizewell “B” PWR nuclear power station in Suffolk.
1988: South African government banned church-led opposition group headed by Archbishop Desmond Tutu as threat to public safety.
1990: Poll tax demonstrations continued. In London, 20 people were arrested when police were pelted with bottles and cans.
1993: At least 200 people were killed and more than 1,100 injured in chain of car bomb explosions in Bombay.
1993: Eldorado, the much-criticised BBC television soap opera set in Spain, was scrapped.
1994: The Church of England ordained its first female priests.
1999: Former Warsaw Pact members the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland joined Nato.
2003: Serbian prime minister Zoran Dindic is assassinated in Belgrade.
2004: The President of South Korea, Roh Moo-hyun, was impeached: the first such impeachment in the nation’s history.
2011: A reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant melted and exploded and releases radioactivity into the atmosphere a day after Japan’s earthquake.
Births: 1710 Thomas Arne, composer of Rule Britannia; 1881 Kemal Atatürk, Turkish general and president; 1914 Peter Roth, co-founder Camphill Community1938 Lord Hogg of Cumbernauld, MP 1979-97, Lord High Commissioner, General Assembly of the Church of Scotland 1998 and 1999.
Deaths: 1628 John Bull, composer of God Save The King; 1925 Sun Yat-Sen, Chinese revolutionary leader; 1984 Arnold Ridley, playwright and actor (Dad’s Army); 2015 Sir Terence Pratchett, British fantasy author.