EVENTS, birthdays, anniversaries
1412: Bishop Henry Wardlaw formally incorporated masters and students at the centre of higher education at St Andrews as a “university,” although it was not officially inaugurated until 4 February, 1414, when Pope Benedict XIII’s Bull of Foundation was promulgated.
1570: Queen Elizabeth I of England was excommunicated by Pope Pius V.
1601: Earl of Essex was executed for treason.
1760: Robert Clive left India to return to England.
1791: Bank of United States founded.
1862: Greenbacks, American bank notes, were first issued during the Civil War by Abraham Lincoln.
1885: Germany annexed Tanganyika and Zanzibar.
1917: Liner Laconia torpedoed by Germans in the Atlantic, with the loss of 30 lives, many of them American.
1932: Adolf Hitler, who was born in Austria, was granted German citizenship.
1955: HMS Ark Royal, Britain’s largest aircraft carrier, was completed.
1958: The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was set up under the presidency of Lord Russell.
1964: Cassius Clay (later Muhammad Ali) won the world heavyweight boxing championship, when Sonny Liston retired in the seventh round.
1969: Mariner 6 launched from Cape Kennedy for a Mars fly-by.
1972: Miners voted to accept new pay deal, thus lifting threat of continuing power cuts for the country.
1976: United States vetoed United Nations resolution deploring Israel’s annexation of Jerusalem.
1978: United States cautioned Soviet Union that continued Soviet military involvement in Ethiopia-Somalia conflict could impair Soviet-US relations.
1982: European Court of Human Rights ruled that British parents could refuse to allow children to be beaten at school.
1986: Philippines president Ferdinand Marcos resigned, brought down by a “people’s power” uprising, military revolt, and American pressure.
1987: Pro-Iranian Shia Muslims buried 23 militants killed by Syrian soldiers in Lebanon, and claimed they were deliberately massacred with axes and bayonets.
1988: Thousands demonstrated in Soviet Armenia in spite of directive to local authorities to restore order.
1990: At least 60 people killed in India as violence marred elections in eight states.
1990: Lithuanian elections gave Sajudis, popular front seeking independence from USSR, first 72 out of 90 seats.
1991: Warsaw Pact was formally dissolved after 36 years by meeting in Budapest.
2009: A Turkish Airlines plane crashed on landing at Amsterdam’s Schiphol international airport, killing nine people and injuring more than 80.
2009: Conservative leader David Cameron’s eldest son Ivan died in hospital. The six-year-old, had cerebral palsy and epilepsy.
Births: 1841 Pierre Auguste Renoir, French Impressionist painter; 1845 Sir George Reid, Scots-born Australian statesman; 1873 Enrico Caruso, operatic singer; 1901 Zeppo Marx, comedy actor; 1917 Anthony Burgess, author; 1934 Tony Lema, American golfer; 1943 George Harrison, Beatle, composer and film producer.
Deaths: 1601 Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex (executed for treason); 1723 Sir Christopher Wren, architect; 1805 William Buchan, Scots-born author of Domestic Medicine, best-selling medical book; 1914 Sir John Tenniel, cartoonist and illustrator of Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.